Barnabas, in the passage treating of the Jewish sabbath ; for the resting of God on the seventh day after the creation is explained in the following manner.After the Son of God has come and put an end to the era of the wicked and judged them, and after the sun, the moon, and the stars have been changed, then He will rest in glory on the seventh day.John's Apocalypse ; the result was that millenarianism spread and gained staunch advocates not only among the heretics but among the Catholic Christians as well. Later among Catholics, Bishop Papias of Hierapolis, a disciple of St. He claimed to have received his doctrine from contemporaries of the Apostles, and Irenaeus narrates that other "Presbyteri", who had seen and heard the disciple John, learned from him the belief in millenarianism as part of the Lord's doctrine. Eccl., 111, 39) Papias in his book asserted that the resurrection of the dead would be followed by one thousand years of a visible glorious earthly kingdom of Christ, and according to Irenaeus (Adv.One of the heretics, the Gnostic Cerinthus, who flourished towards the end of the first century, proclaimed a splendid kingdom of Christ on earth which He would establish with the risen saints upon His second advent, and pictured the pleasures of this one thousand years in gross, sensual colours (Caius in Eusebius, "Hist. Haereses, V, 33), he taught that the saints too would enjoy a superabundance of earthly pleasures.
Essential are the following points: The roots of the belief in a glorious kingdom, partly natural, partly supernatural, are found in the hopes of the Jews for a temporal Messiah and in the Jewish apocalyptic.
The Roman presbyter Caius (end of the second and beginning of the third century) attacked the millenarians.